A Study in Scarlet by Arthur Conan Doyle

Originally Published 1887
Sherlock Holmes #1
Followed by The Sign of Four

The first of the Sherlock Holmes stories, this was also the first of Conan Doyle’s books to be published. In this fascinating and exciting tale, the two towering creations of detective fiction—Holmes, the master of the science of detection, and Watson, his faithful companion—make their auspicious debut. The two detectives are immediately in fine form as Holmes plucks the solution to the mystery from the heart of Victorian London.

Yesterday I teased on my Twitter account that this week I would be discussing the first appearance of one of the most iconic detectives in literature. That detective is, of course, Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes.

Though A Study in Scarlet introduced readers to Sherlock Holmes it was not my first encounter with the character. That was The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes which I followed with the other short story collections and The Hound of the Baskervilles.

By the time I reached A Study in Scarlet I must have been about twelve years old. I recall being tremendously excited that my secondary school library had a copy and checking it out, looking forward to experiencing this piece of literary history for myself. Unfortunately twelve-year-old me ended up being somewhat disappointed with the tale but I have revisited it several times since then and found I appreciated aspects of it more than I did back then.

The story begins by introducing us to Dr. John Watson, an army medical officer who has returned to England to convalesce after being wounded in service in Afghanistan. A friend introduces him to Sherlock Holmes who, he notes, is rather odd but in need of someone to share lodgings with in the city. He soon becomes curious about Holmes’ work and is invited along when the consulting detective is summoned by Inspector Gregson to take a look at a strange crime scene.

They find a man dead with a grotesque expression on his face. There are no signs indicating a physical altercation about the corpse or in the room but a word ‘Rache‘ has been written on the wall in blood…

When reading this I am always struck by just how effective these opening chapters are and how well Conan Doyle establishes the characters of Watson and Holmes. Later stories add more details to both men’s lives but I think the core elements of each character’s personality are present already and I really enjoy their interactions.

Probably my favorite of these moments occurs early in the second chapter. It is a passage in which Watson attempts to catalog Holmes’ limitations only to give up in frustration. Holmes intrigues and yet baffles Watson as he cannot understand the detective’s absolute focus on developing some skills and knowledge at the expense of other, more everyday pieces of information.

What I like about this section and, indeed, the character of Holmes in general is that he is established to be flawed rather than superhuman. Watson likes him and so we are inclined to do so as well and yet it is clear that he could be frustrating company. Perhaps more importantly though the flaws help justify the brilliance and there is something quite entrancing about following his deductions and investigative process even if it is rarely fair play.

Similarly I think the two sequences in which Holmes and Watson investigate crime scenes are quite effectively written, particularly the first one. The message written in blood on the wall is perhaps an excessively dramatic touch (though it was one of the parts of the novel that really worked for me as a pre-teen) but I think the puzzle is surprisingly subtle. Holmes’ observations and explanations are clever and when the circumstances of the murders are explained in the final chapters of the novel I think the crime scenes make sense.

The problems with the book are found in its second half which suddenly diverges from the style and tone of the story up until that point, telling a historical narrative. This was an enormous shock to me when I first read it as it doesn’t feel integrated into Watson’s narrative. It wasn’t what I had been expecting and didn’t match what I wanted from the book at all, striking me as dull.

On revisiting the novel I find more to appreciate in these chapters. While the change of style and setting is quite abrupt, I think Conan Doyle’s depiction of the landscape and the realities of a harsh journey in the first chapter are quite striking and evocative. There is a sense of isolation and a need to survive in difficult circumstances that I think he really conveys well.

What doesn’t work for me is the tone of the second half of the novel in which every emotion is heightened to an absurd degree. Whether it is a moment of sickly sweetness in the midst of despair or the “so it has been decreed” speeches, this second half of the book lacks subtlety of character or in terms of the situations Conan Doyle creates. I would even say that it is so over the top that rather than encouraging empathy it makes the plight of the characters seem unreal.

The return to London and the narrative voice of Dr. Watson is welcome and the final few chapters of the book do a good job of pulling together the information and explaining how Holmes was able to identify the killer. Some aspects of their motivation and plan are explained and while Conan Doyle still employs that heightened, dramatic tone at times, I think he finds a better balance with the colder analytical voice of Sherlock Holmes to end on a stronger note.

Were it not for its status as the first appearance of Sherlock Holmes I suspect we would not remember A Study in Scarlet as a standout story. It has some wonderful moments that establish the characters of Holmes and Watson as well as two interesting murders but the second half of the book feels drawn out and very heavy. Still, it is a landmark adventure for the character and for that reason alone I think it is worth experiencing.

Vintage Mysteries Challenge: Death by Poison (How)

13 thoughts on “A Study in Scarlet by Arthur Conan Doyle

  1. I couldn’t agree more, Aidan, about the second chapter of the book, in which Watson tries to describe Holmes and his character traits. It makes for a fascinating portrait of person, doesn’t it? And, no, the book may not be the best ever written, but it has plenty to recommend it.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. You are right – a wonderful portrait that provides insight into Holmes. I agree that the book has more to recommend it than I felt on first reading though I would suggest readers who are new to Holmes start with the short stories.

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  2. Yes it is the retrospective second part which killed this book for me also. Unfortunately it is a structure Doyle reverts back to in The Valley of Fear. Though knowing Doyle these sections were probably the bits he enjoyed writing the most, as he was always much more in favour of his historical fiction than his Holmes tales. I would say Holmes tends to work much better in short stories than in full blown novels.

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    1. I do agree that Holmes fits the short story format best. The second half could have been trimmed back considerably and still communicated the most important details. It seems to go on forever and I just wanted to get back to Holmes!

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  3. We’re very much in agreement here. To me, the historical retrospective works better in “The Valley of Fear”, though it’s a bit tedious there as well. I suppose that’s why “Hound of Baskervilles” enjoys the best reputation of his novels – it doesn’t have any of that hokey background stuff.

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    1. I have surprisingly little memory of The Valley of Fear so I will be curious when I get to that one. I know that I read it so no doubt it will come back to me once I start.

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      1. I’ve actually always enjoyed “The Valley of Fear” the most of his novels – possibly because it’s the runt of the litter, the one no one ever talks about. 🙂

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      2. I’m with Christian on The Valley of Fear — though the second half is weird in the extreme, the actual mystery sections are superb (yes, yes, I know it’s easy to see through…), and for my money it’s the best-written of the longer works.

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      3. I will look forward to reaching that one then. I quickly took a look at a synopsis and it rings no bells with me so it will feel like reading a new book!


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